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Water Treatment

Finding and sustaining a clean water supply for drinking and other purposes has always been a great challenge throughout human history.

Today, important technological advancements in water treatment, including monitoring and assessment, help ensure a safe drinking water supply of high quality. The source of water and its preliminary condition before being treated generally determines the water treatment process.

Just as the earth’s water cycle continually recharges water, water is repeatedly cleansed through numerous natural processes. For example, solids settle at the bottom of water bodies and impurities are filtered out when water penetrates or seeps through rocks, gravel, or sand and back into groundwater sources.

Likewise, water treatment technology has been developed to imitate nature’s cleansing process but at a quicker rate and with greater control over completeness and efficiency.

Progressive treatment processes are used to reach the water quality levels necessary for the purposed usage.

Water Treatment Synopsis

Effective Energy Management in Water Treatment

Drinking water is largely obtained by purifying groundwater and surface water. This is done through chemical or physical treatment processes and the setting of certain parameters, such as the pH value and ion concentration. The type of treatment depends on the quality of the raw water and is determined by the substances it contains and the substances to be removed. Energy consumption represents one of the biggest cost factors. Our smart products, services and solutions help you to achieve transparency in terms of energy demand and to meaningfully reduce your costs.

The Treatment Process

Primary treatment removes wastewater solids by sedimentation. During this treatment, wastewater flows slowly through a tank allowing suspended particles that are heavier than water to settle to the bottom of the tank. From there, the solids are pumped to digesters for stabilization.

Secondary treatment is a biological treatment process involving oxidation and sedimentation of primary treated wastewater. It uses bacteria to remove approximately 90 to 95 percent of the solids remaining from the primary treatment.

Tertiary treatment –involves coagulation, flocculation, clarification, filtration and disinfection of secondary treated water.

Finally, at most wastewater treatment plants scum and bio solids undergo significant treatment, often through a process called anaerobic digestion. This includes heating material to 100+ degrees to help break it down and destroy pathogens. Other processes include composting and heat drying.

Treating Wastewater Reliably and Efficiently

A clean solution

It is amazing to know that less than 1 % of the world’s water is potable. Given the high growth rate in population, it is crucial that the scarce water resources we have be sustainably used and made drinkable.

Wastewater must also be treated because about 80% of it flows unfiltered into lakes, rivers, seas and oceans. With new integrated technologies and comprehensive service, Hydromo provides complete solutions for a clean and future-ready water industry.

How do the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) work?

Drinking water is a very valuable commodity for the human race. Have you ever thought about what happens to wastewater after it is flushed down by our drains and toilets?

Availability of drinking water in our domestic dwellings is nothing unusual. We take a shower and the water drains away. We use a toilet and all human waste drains away through pipeline into drainages. We do the washing-up and water along with the dish soap disappears in the kitchen sink drain. Did you ever think where the water ends up and what happens with the used water afterwards?

We mostly think it is not our concern. But we need to contemplate the wastewater treatment.

What is Wastewater?

It is used water originating from domestic, industrial, agricultural, and medical or transport activities. Used water becomes wastewater upon the change of its quality, composition and/or temperature.

However, wastewater does not include water released from ponds or reservoirs for fish farming.

Types of Wastewater

Wastewater can be divided into two major groups:

Sewage water is all wastewater used in domestic dwellings (e.g. originating from toilets, showers or sinks).

Industrial wastewater originates from production, industrial and commercial activities, and has a different chemical composition to sewage water.

In broad terms, we may distinguish municipal wastewater originating from municipalities. It has different ratio of sewage water, industrial wastewater and unabsorbed rain water flowing through the public sewers.

How does the municipal wastewater treatment process work?

Step-by-step guide:

1. Firstly, wastewater is drained to the WWTP by gravity through the main sewer system of the size of a car. Having such size, objects you could hardly imagine reach the WWTPs, ranging from mattresses, fridges, tree branches to wallets disposed of by thieves in order to get rid of the evidence.

2. The first mechanical stage is called preliminary treatment or rather pre-treatment.

Water flows through gravel chamber for settling out the grit from water. Afterwards, gravel is disposed of at the dump. Water further reaches the bar screens used to remove large objects from the wastewater. At first come the coarse screens and then the fine screens which remove smaller objects such as matches, cigarette butts or undigested foods.

3. After the removal of large objects, grit is to be removed from the wastewater. Similar to the gravel chamber, grit chamber allows the settlement of grit. Then, grit is removed from the tank and disposed of at the dump. Neither gravel nor grit can be reused due to their high contamination.

4. The next sedimentation stage is called primary treatment during which the wastewater flows to so-called “pre-settling basins” or, using the technical term, primary settling tanks.

Water is driven towards the hopper in the base of the tank. Hopper arm moves around the edge of the tank at the velocity of 4cm/s. Treated water heads toward edges and the particulates of higher sedimentation velocity than the flow velocity settle on the bottom of the tank.

This is the point where primary pre-treatment ends and secondary wastewater treatment starts. After the primary treatment, level of wastewater pollution drops to 60%.

5. The secondary treatment, also called biological stage, is based on natural processes. WWTPs use bacteria which consume the contaminants, in particular biodegradable organics, carbon and phosphorus.

6. During the biological stage, the excess sludge (i.e. excess bacteria) is pumped out and moved before the settling tanks. Here, the sludge settles and is transported to digestion tanks for further treatment.

7. In the digestion tanks, sludge pumped out of the settling tanks is heated and mixed. Afterwards, biogas is produced during the digestion process from the sludge which the WWTPs can reuse, for instance for electrical and thermal energy production.

8. When sludge digestion reaches optimal level, the second digestion stage takes place in storage tanks. Here, the water is separated from the semi-solid sludge and transported back for further treatment, whereas the residual semi-solid undergoes mechanical dewatering.

9. Sludge, digested and dewatered to the optimal degree, is finally disposed of at the dump. In about a month, sludge is adequately dried out and ripe. If it complies with agricultural standards, it can be reused for fertilisation of industrial crops.

10. The final step of wastewater treatment is the deep inspection of service water. Aim of this inspection is to analyse the contamination level and ensure that the treated water complies with the highest standards, defining its release or reuse for domestic and/or industrial purposes.

If you are interested in wastewater treatment or need guidance, don’t hesitate to contact Hydromo experts. They will gladly and professionally advise you.

We offer various services to assist our customers from project planning stage to the commissioning of the project. Our Consulting services include:

Ø  Counselling and expert advice on viability of the projects.

Ø  Project report & detailed project plan.

Ø  Design of project layout.

Ø  Detailed technical specifications of various machines and other utilities required.

Ø  Various options in machinery.

Ø  Delivery of various machines to the project site.

Ø  Installation, testing and commissioning of machines.

Ø  Fine- tuning and commencement of commercial production.

Post production counselling, market information and feedback.

A highly professional service and maintenance package which covers the Water & Wastewater equipment with the most reliable manpower from the Industry. The preventive maintenance concept is followed to deliver worth to customer. Constant features of this package is inclusive of planned inspection visits and planned maintenance and services. We also have customised packages for customers who can opt for our value added services like monitoring, Lab and Instrument support.